TBI references



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Emory Medicine April 22, 2013
Healing hormone provides hope for brain injury

Adv Biomed Res 2012, 1:58
Comparison of the administration of progesterone versus progesterone and vitamin D in improvement of outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury: A randomized clinical trial with placebo group

VDC December 18, 2012
RCT: Vitamin D levels and traumatic brain injury

Mail Online 16th January 2012
Can female sex hormones beat brain damage? Doctors believe progesterone may have protective effect

Steroids. 2011 Aug;76(9):845-55
Progesterone inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels is a potential neuroprotective mechanism against excitotoxicity

Neuroscience. 2011 Sep 15;191:101-6
Progesterone in the treatment of acute traumatic brain injury: a clinical perspective and update

Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2011;13(3):352-9
Is progesterone a worthy candidate as a novel therapy for traumatic brain injury?

Emory Health September 20, 2011
Blood biomarkers may help predict risk in stroke and TBI

Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2010 Jul;19(7):847-57
Progesterone in the clinical treatment of acute traumatic brain injury

ABC Friday, January 22, 2010
Grady testing breakthrough for traumatic brain injury

AJR 2010; 194:20-22
Is Progesterone Worth Consideration as a Treatment for Brain Injury?

Emory University Jan. 14, 2010
Atlanta To Serve as National Epicenter for Promising Phase III Brain Injury Treatment Trial

Emory University Jun. 23, 2009
Emory Announces Phase III Study of Progesterone for Traumatic Brain Injury

Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(11):1418-25
Exogenous progesterone: a potential therapeutic candidate in CNS injury and neurodegeneration

Neurobiol Aging. 2009 May 29
Vitamin D deficiency reduces the benefits of progesterone treatment after brain injury in aged rats.

Mol Med. 2009 Sep-Oct;15(9-10):328-36
Progesterone with Vitamin D Affords Better Neuroprotection against Excitotoxicity in Cultured Cortical Neurons than Progesterone Alone

Front Neuroendocrinol. 2009 Jul;30(2):158-72
Combination treatment with progesterone and vitamin D hormone may be more effective than monotherapy for nervous system injury and disease

1: Front Neuroendocrinol. 2009 Jul;30(2):173-87
Progesterone neuroprotection in traumatic CNS injury and motoneuron degeneration

Mediators of Inflammation Volume 2008 (2008), Article ID 716458
Inhibitory Effect on Cerebral Inflammatory Response following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats: A Potential Neuroprotective Mechanism of N- Acetylcysteine

1: Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Feb;51(2):164-72
Does progesterone have neuroprotective properties?

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008 Nov;28(11):1786-94
Progesterone and its metabolite allopregnanolone differentially regulate hemostatic proteins after traumatic brain injury

Brain Res Rev. 2008 Mar;57(2):460-9
Neuroactive steroids and peripheral neuropathy

Brain (2008) 131 (2): 318-328
Progesterone for the treatment of experimental brain injury; a systematic review

Brain Research Reviews Volume 57, Issue 2, 14 March 2008, Pages 410-420
Endogenous and synthetic neurosteroids in treatment of NiemannPick Type C disease

Brain Injury, February 2008; 22(2): 107113
Effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on cerebral oedema and spatial learning performance after traumatic brain injury in rats

J. Nutr. 138:2025S-2031S, October 2008
Nonnutritive Effects of Glutamine

Wall Street Journal SEPTEMBER 26, 2007
One Doctor's Lonely Quest To Heal Brain Injury

Emory University 2007
The promise of progesterone

Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Oct;116(1):77-106
Progesterone: therapeutic opportunities for neuroprotection and myelin repair

Mediators of Inflammation Volume 2007, Article ID 93431, 7 pages
Progesterone Prevents Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Intestinal Nuclear Factor kappa B Activation and Proinflammatory Cytokines Expression in Male Rats

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 86, No. 5, 1438-1444, November 2007
Plasma arginine and citrulline concentrations in critically ill children: strong relation with inflammation

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2007 Jan;10(1):80-7
The role of L-arginine following trauma and blood loss

Minerva Endocrinol. 2007 Jun ;32 (2):95-102 17557035
Progestins and neuroprotection: are all progestins created equal?

Endocrine Reviews 2007, 28 (4): 387-439
Novel Perspectives for Progesterone in Hormone Replacement Therapy, with Special Reference to the Nervous System

Exp Neurol. 2007 Feb;203(2):406-14
Progesterone modulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor and choline acetyltransferase in degenerating Wobbler motoneurons

Progress in Brain Research Volume 161, 2007, Pages 339-351
Sex differences in brain damage and recovery of function: experimental and clinical findings

Neuroscience. 2007 Feb 23;144(4):1293-304
Progesterone and its derivatives are neuroprotective agents in experimental diabetic neuropathy: a multimodal analysis

ENDOCRINE 2006, Volume 29, Number 2, 271-274
Progesterone-induced neuroprotection

Biological Psychiatry Volume 60, Issue 7, 1 October 2006, Pages 704-713
Decreased Cerebrospinal Fluid Allopregnanolone Levels in Women with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Jul;84(3):420-8
Slow-release and injected progesterone treatments enhance acute recovery after traumatic brain injury

Emory University Press release 02 October 2006
2006 Progesterone Shows Promise as Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury

J Mol Neurosci. 2006;28(1):3-15
Progesterone treatment of spinal cord injury: Effects on receptors, neurotrophins, and myelination

Gynecological Endocrinology, July 2006; 22(7): 355361
Medroxyprogesterone acetate exacerbates glutamate excitotoxicity

J Neurobiol. 2006 Aug;66(9):916-28
Reduced metabolites mediate neuroprotective effects of progesterone in the adult rat hippocampus. The synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) is not neuroprotective

Endocrine, vol. 29, no. 2, 271274, April 2006
Progesterone-Induced Neuroprotection

Amino Acids Volume 34, Number 2 / February, 2008
Taurine increases mitochondrial buffering of calcium: role in neuroprotection

ACNR VOLUME 5 NUMBER 4, SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2005
Progesterone in the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

Georgia Institute of Technology 19-Jul-2005
The Effect of Progesterone Withdrawal on Molecular and Behavioral Indices after Traumatic Brain Injury

JOURNAL OF NEUROTRAUMA Volume 22, Number 1, 2005
The Neurosteroids Progesterone and Allopregnanolone Reduce Cell Death, Gliosis, and Functional Deficits after Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

Experimental Neurology Volume 193, Issue 2, June 2005, Pages 522-530
Progesterone suppresses the inflammatory response and nitric oxide synthase-2 expression following cerebral ischemia

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1052: 145151 (2005)
Mechanisms of Progesterone-Induced Neuroprotection

2005 International Life Sciences Institute
The Role of Glutamine in Intensive Care Unit Patients: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Outcome

AMINO ACIDS 2005, Volume 30, Number 1, 81-86
Plasma arginine correlations in trauma and sepsis

Neuroscience. 2004;125(3):605-14
Progesterone up-regulates neuronal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the injured spinal cord

Growth Hormone & IGF Research Volume 14, Supplement 1, June 2004, Pages 18-33
Local synthesis and dual actions of progesterone in the nervous system: neuroprotection and myelination

Prog Neurobiol. 2003 Sep;71(1):57-66
Neuroactive steroids influence peripheral myelination: a promising opportunity for preventing or treating age-dependent dysfunctions of peripheral nerves

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 77, No. 1, 250-256, January 2003
Plasma taurine concentrations increase after enteral glutamine supplementation in trauma patients and stressed rats

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2002 Apr;80(4-5):449-55
Distribution and metabolism of topically applied progesterone in a rat model

Trends in Neurosciences Volume 24, Issue 7, 1 July 2001, Pages 386-391
Brain damage, sex hormones and recovery: a new role for progesterone and estrogen?

Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2001 Nov;37(1-3):343-59
Progesterone synthesis and myelin formation in peripheral nerves

Brain Research Reviews Volume 37, Issues 1-3, November 2001, Pages 360-371
Neuroactive steroids and peripheral myelin proteins

Shock. 2001 Mar;15(3):215-9
Alterations in arginine metabolic enzymes in trauma

Steroids Volume 65, Issues 10-11, October-November 2000, Pages 605-612
Progesterone as a neuroactive neurosteroid, with special reference to the effect of progesterone on myelination

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1999 Apr-Jun; 69(1-6): 97-107
Progesterone as a neurosteroid: synthesis and actions in rat glial cells

Brain Res Bull. 1999 Jan 15;48(2):203-9
Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course

J Parenter Enteral Nutr January 1998 vol. 22 no. 1 42-48
Review: Host Defense-A Role for the Amino Acid Taurine?

J Neurochem. 1998 Oct;71(4):1765-8
Progesterone stimulates the activity of the promoters of peripheral myelin protein-22 and protein zero genes in Schwann cells

Neuroscience Volume 85, Issue 2, 8 April 1998, Pages 569-578
Age-induced decrease of glycoprotein Po and myelin basic protein gene expression in the rat sciatic nerve. Repair by steroid derivatives

Mol Chem Neuropathol. 1997 May;31(1):1-11
Progesterone protects against lipid peroxidation following traumatic brain injury in rats

Brain Res. 1996 Sep 30;735(1):101-7
Progesterone is neuroprotective after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in male rats

EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY 138, 246251 (1996)
Progesterone Rapidly Decreases Brain Edema: Treatment Delayed up to 24 Hours Is Still Effective

CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY 1995, Volume 16, Number 3, 439-443
The neurosteroid progesterone increases the expression of myelin proteins (MBP and CNPase) in rat oligodendrocytes in primary culture

Science 9 June 1995: Vol. 268 no. 5216 pp. 1500-1503
Progesterone synthesis and myelin formation by Schwann cells

Stroke. 1995; 26: 305-311
N-Acetylcysteine Enhances Hippocampal Neuronal Survival After Transient Forebrain Ischemia in Rats

Exp Neurol. 1994 Sep;129(1):64-9
Progesterone facilitates cognitive recovery and reduces secondary neuronal loss caused by cortical contusion injury in male rats

Brain Research Volume 607, Issues 1-2, 2 April 1993, Pages 333-336
Gender influences outcome of brain injury: progesterone plays a protective role

Endocrinology. 1993 Jan;132(1):86-93
Estradiol is selectively neurotoxic to hypothalamic beta-endorphin neurons

Biol Reprod. 1993 Oct;49(4):647-52
Pathologic effect of estradiol on the hypothalamus

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1990, Vol 52, 657-660
Taurine concentrations in serum of critically injured patients and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr September 1990 vol. 14 no. 5 suppl 226S-229S
Role of Arginine in Trauma, Sepsis, and Immunity

Life Sci. 1985 Dec 9;37(23):2157-63
Dietary tyrosine suppresses the rise in plasma corticosterone following acute stress in rats



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